CSTM Virtualisation & Containerisation

Please click on the following tabs to reveal the knowledge depth required for a successful pass of the CSTM exam.

You will be given a random selection of questions. Please note exam content is subject to change due to circumstances beyond our control – use this as a guide and email us if you have any queries.

  • Can identify use of popular virtualisation technologies, including:
    • VMware • Microsoft HyperV • Citrix •Oracle VirtualBox
  • Understands common vulnerabilities found in hypervisors, including:
    • Exposure of management interface • Use of default or insecure credentials
    • Common high profile CVEs
  • Understands the inherent risks in shared virtualised environments, e.g. shared memory space.


  • Understands and can demonstrate common techniquesfor escaping a virtualised environment, including:

    • Directory traversal in shared folders

    • Virtual device communication breakout

    • Public CVEs relating to memory corruption

  • Can demonstrate how to take snapshots and techniques for recovering key sensitive information.
  • Understands the security implications of reverting a VM to a previous state.
  • Understands the sensitive nature of snapshot files and the need to restrict access.
  • Understands the key differences between virtualisation and containerisation
  • Can identify and interrogate running containers on a host
  • Understands the concepts of layered filesystems andhow to extract and analyse specific layers within an image
  • Can identify common vulnerabilities and weaknessespresent in containers, including:• Missing security patches • Weak file permissions• Insufficient or lack of resource quotas• Presence of sensitive information in environment variables, running processes or filesystem
  • Understands and can analyse Dockerfile filesto uncover weaknesses in static images, including:• Use of unencrypted connections for performing downloads

    • Use of overly generous permissions, e.g. running as the root user

    • Inclusion of sensitive information, e.g. passwords or private keys• Unnecessary exposure of ports